The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata , which had its base there. Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares 99 acres and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre , triumphal arch , Roman circus , theatre , and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port.
It also had and still has the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats , with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge.
This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.
The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In , it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls , governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania Spain and Armorica Brittany.
At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,—, people. It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I , who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II , was born in Arles. Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul.
The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around and continuing with Saint Honoratus , then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St.
Caesarius, bishop of Arles —, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in , when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.
The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy , even heresy , in Occitan culture. At Treves in , Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars , Camisards.
Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils see Council of Arles , the rival of Vienne , for hundreds of years.
The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille , a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world ". There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex.
The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built.
The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life. It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill.
There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines. In , after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus , who feared Charles Martel 's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia.
The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In , it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles , which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In , Rudolph, Count of Auxerre now in north-western Burgundy , founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy literally, beyond the Jura mountains , which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais , Geneva , Chablais and Bugey.
Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.
The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat chief magistrate; literally "power" , who appointed the consuls and other magistrates.
It retained this status until the French Revolution of Arles joined the countship of Provence in , but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.
This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh , who arrived there on 21 February He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined.
Arles had an important and prominent Jewish community between the Roman era and the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans.
Nevertheless, the first documented evidence of Jews in Arles is not before the fifth century, when a distinguished community already existed in the town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages.
At the eighth century, jurisdiction over the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return.
Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum. Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral , a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. The Church of St. Trophime Saint Trophimus , formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture , and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.
The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques , with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.
The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors. In September—October , divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD.
The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Ses postures et ses gestes étaient cependant féminins. Il pouvait donc être marié et avoir des enfants, notamment dans le but d'assurer sa succession, s'il disposait de biens fonciers.
Il convient de ne pas le considérer systématiquement comme homosexuel, et de ne pas le confondre avec un raerae. Les mahus sont respectés dans la culture polynésienne. Un mahu est un homme aux manières efféminées mais qui garde une tenue vestimentaire propre à son sexe. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Accessed Dec 7, Histoire de la transidentité Transidentité et religion.
Changement de voix Rembourrage de hanches et de fesses. Bandage de la poitrine Grossesse transgenre Packing. Vaginoplastie Orchiectomie Clitoroplastie Aïdoïopoïèse Dysphorie de genre Chirurgie de féminisation faciale Chondrolaryngoplastie Changement de voix Chirurgie de réattribution sexuelle d'homme vers femme Implant mammaire Labiaplastie Hormonosubstitution.
Dysphorie de genre Mastectomie Hystérectomie Métaidoïoplastie Phalloplastie Chirurgie de réattribution sexuelle de femme vers homme Prothèse pénienne Implant pénien Scrotoplastie Reconstruction de la poitrine masculine Prise de testostérone. Non-conformité de genre dans l'enfance Dysphorie de genre chez les enfants Inhibiteur d'hormones. Aspects juridiques de la transidentité Changement de prénom Transposition de genre. Distinction entre sexe et genre Identité de genre Assignation sexuelle Binarité de genre Non-binaire Transféminisme.
Attirance envers les personnes transgenres Sexualité transgenre Androphilie et gynophilie. Bacha posh Bissu Hijra New half Katoï.
Femminielli Non-binaire Transgenre dans la Grèce antique Vierges sous serment. Mudoko dako Koekchuch Cogenre. Existrans Journée du souvenir trans Journée internationale de visibilité transgenre.